Tuesday, November 28, 2023

Asterisk and sharing <Custom:> device states

 Asterisk has a mechanism to sharing device states across the servers using just PJSIP.

But what is interesting, this mechanism is not really applies to Custom: device states. Means if you have 2 servers and want to share BLF state via hint and have something like

extensions.conf

...

exten => MY_STATE,hint,Custom:MY_DEVICE


and changing it via asterisk CLI


> devstate change Custom:MY_DEVICE BUSY


on local server, it will change the hint on the remote server, but not actual devstate that you're connecting this hint with 

> devstate list 

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Custom Device States --------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------
---
--- Name: 'Custom:MY_DEVICE'  State: 'NOT_INUSE'
 

> core show hints

    -= Registered Asterisk Dial Plan Hints =-
MY_STATE@hints: Custom:MY_DEVICE  State:Busy            Presence:not_set         Watchers  0


This situation gives me a lot of hard times, when you have visual inconsistency on the same server, but totally forgetting that you have second spare server.

For me, the resolution was to sync the actual Custom: device states via external service using AMI that monitors DeviceStateChange events and using Setvar just changing state explicitly.

Just a note, that if someone will fall into the same pit.

Thursday, September 21, 2023

Asterisk queues, local channels and transfers

 Here comes the same old story about Asterisk queues and using Local channels within it. But with PJSIP flavour.

So, it is known, that local channels in Asterisk can be tricky and might require disable of the optimizations when used in Queues. Yes, famous /n at the end of the channel name so the Queue application can trach the status of the channel

But the drawback of this method is also known and this is transfers calls from the agents. Means when you do a transfer, initial channel is not freed.

Or outgoing calls from the agents. Like if agent do an outbound call and still resides in a queue, it would not be considered as busy.

Many methods to workaround this, and I'm not exception to build own based on GROUP and GROUP_COUNT originating from Asterisk: The Definitive Guide book, but with some modifications regarding new ways of setting variables on PJSIP channels and further optimisations of Local Channel in the Asterisk.


queues.conf

...

[QUEUE_A]

member => Local/AGENT_A@agents

...

extensions.conf

...

[incoming]

exten => QUEUE_A,1,Queue(QUEUE_A)

[agents]

; First to  check if there are active calls on this agent

exten => AGENT_A,1,ExecIf($[ ${GROUP_COUNT(${EXTEN}@agents)} >= 1 ]?Congestion())

    ; We  need to set GROUP on outgoing channel as current channel will be destroyed upon answer

    same => n,Dial(PJSIP/AGENT_A@trunk,,b(set_group^${EXTEN}^1))

[agents_outgoing] 

; Make sure we're not getting calls to agent when it's on outgoing call

exten => OUT_NUM,1,Gosub(set_group,${CALLERID(num)},1)

    same => n,Dial(PJSIP/${EXTEN}@out_trunk)


[set_group]

exten => AGENT_A,1,Set(GROUP(agents)=${EXTEN})

    same => n,Return()

Just a small warning, it's more a pseudo-code, but just to give an overall idea

Friday, August 18, 2023

Importance of creating dialog in Kamailio right

 I know, the things described here might be obvious and considered "for beginners", but everyone can make stupid errors. Even the best of us :)
So, what I'm using Kamailio dialog module for?

  • Keepalives with ka_timer parameter, mainly cause of the nature of mobile clients that are unstable due to the mobile network nature
  • Presence PUBLISH'es via pua/pua_dialoginfo modules to separate presence server

 

With the second one actually, I've issued some "problems" due to configuration.

Most examples (at least what I've seen) on Kamailio configs, that are operating with the dialogs, have more-or-less this structure:

request_route {
   route(REQINIT);

   if (is_method("INVITE")) {
       dlg_manage();
   }

   route(WITHINDLG);

   ...

   route(AUTH);

   ...

}

There is a problem with this code. And it is, that this code creates dialogs for EVERY INVITE, even if not authed. 

So, the usual flow INVITE - 401 - INVITE (w/auth) - 200 will create 2 dialogs in this case. The first one will be not terminated correctly with connection with pua module. It will generate PUBLISH with the Trying state,  but on 401 - ACK, there would be no corresponding PUBLISH for the terminated state. And as usual, Expire here is 3600, and you will have a lot of "ringing" devices on your presence server.

The answer would be: create dialogs only for authed (and valid) INVITEs. This will also save some CPU not to create dialogs for spammers.

request_route {
   route(REQINIT);

   route(WITHINDLG);

   ...

   route(AUTH);

   if (is_method("INVITE")) {
       dlg_manage();
   }

   ...

}

Tuesday, April 4, 2023

Adding a bit of privacy to Kamailio's pua_dialoginfo module

Kamailio is a great product. With really good customisation possibilities.One of examples will follow here.

Task is the following: we have a setup with 2 different servers, proxy and presence server. Presence server is simple and just processing SUBSCRIBE/PUBLISH messages and generating NOTIFY's. Mainly for BLF's.  But users wants to have some privacy in a question, than not everyone can subscribe to anyone and more interesting - monitor who's calling whom. But some of the users, especially in boss-assistant scenarios want to have full information about calls. Like assistant of the boss usually should know who's calling to boss phone and answer (pickup) in some cases. 

Kamailio allows to achieve this scenario, but with a bit of customisation.

Idea is to have concept of 2 groups. 

Group1 for ACL about possibility of user monitor other user in general, second one - having ACL for seeing call details.

Here I'll point on idea with some code examples for proxy part. And just to mention, pickup functions are implemented not on proxy server, so it's not broken for me here.

Proxy

kamailio.cfg

loadmodule "pua.so"
loadmodule "pua_dialoginfo.so"
...
modparam("pua", "db_url", DBURL)
modparam("pua", "outbound_proxy", "sip:<PRESENCE_SERVER>:5060")
modparam("pua", "db_mode", 0)
...
modparam("pua_dialoginfo", "include_callid", 0)
modparam("pua_dialoginfo", "include_tags", 0)
# we want to have info on who's calling
modparam("pua_dialoginfo", "include_localremote", 1)
... 
# Table to allow subscription one on each other. If users share the same group - they can subscribe one to each other.
# By default all shares the same group = 1. If group == 0, that means nobody can see your state.
# Format is <extension>=><list_of_groups_comma_separated>
modparam("htable", "htable", 'presence_view_grp=>size=15;')
# Table to allow subscribers view each other call details data. By default it's forbidden.
modparam("htable", "htable", 'presence_view_details_grp=>size=15;')
# You can fill these tables via database or whatever else method you prefer

...
route(PRESENCE_PRIVACY);
route(WITHINDLG);
...

route(AUTH)
route(PRESENCE)
...
# Presence server route
route[PRESENCE] {
    if(!is_method("PUBLISH|SUBSCRIBE")) {
        return;
    }
    # Check if user is registered
    if (is_method("SUBSCRIBE") && !(registered("location", "$fu", 4) == 1)) {
        append_to_reply("Retry-After: 10\r\n");
        send_reply("500", "Retry Later");
        exit;
    }

   $du = "sip:<PRESENCE_SERVER>:5060";
   
    # By default - allow anyone subscribe to anyone.
    $var(presence_grp_from) = "1";
    $var(presence_grp_to) = "1";

    if ($sht(presence_view_grp=>$fU) != $null) {
        $var(presence_grp_from) = $sht(presence_view_grp=>$fU);
    }

    if ($sht(presence_view_grp=>$tU) != $null) {
        $var(presence_grp_to) = $sht(presence_view_grp=>$tU);
    }


    if (is_method("SUBSCRIBE")) {
        if ((str)$var(presence_grp_to) == "0") {
            # Presence group "0" means fully private.

            send_reply("404", "Subscriber not exists");
            exit;
        }

        $var(group_1) = $var(presence_grp_to);
        $var(group_2) = $var(presence_grp_from);

        if (!route(CHECK_GROUP_INTERSECTION)) {
            # No common groups for From/To
            send_reply("404", "Subscriber not exists");
            exit;
        }
    }

    route(RELAY);
}

route[PRESENCE_PRIVACY] {
    # We're processing only NOTIFY's with Dialog XML data here
    if (!is_method("NOTIFY") || !has_body("application/dialog-info+xml")) {
        return;
    }

    if ($sht(presence_view_details_grp=>$fU) == $null || $sht(presence_view_details_grp=>$tU) == $null) {
        # By default all call data is private
        route(PRESENCE_CLEAR_CALL_DETAILS);
        return;
    }

    $var(group_1) = $sht(presence_view_details_grp=>$tU);
    $var(group_2) = $sht(presence_view_details_grp=>$fU);

    if (!route(CHECK_GROUP_INTERSECTION)) {
        # No common groups for From/To
        route(
PRESENCE_CLEAR_CALL_DETAILS);
        return;
    }

    # At this point all is ok.

}

route[PRESENCE_CLEAR_CALL_DETAILS] {

    # Forming new body of the presence info
    # For replace trick see https://lists.kamailio.org/pipermail/sr-users/2022-February/114185.html
    $xml(body=>doc) = $(rb{s.replace,xmlns=,xyzwq=});
   
    # Forming new XML
    $var(new_body) = "<?xml version=\"1.0\"?>\n";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + "<dialog-info xmlns=\"" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/@xyzwq) + "\"";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + " version=\"" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/@version) + "\"";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + " state=\"" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/@state) + "\"";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + " entity=\"" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/@entity) + "\">\n";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + "  <dialog id=\"" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/dialog/@id) + "\"\n";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + " direction=\"" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/dialog/@direction) + "\">\n";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + "    <state>" + $xml(body=>xpath:/dialog-info/dialog/state/text()) + "</state>\n";
    $var(new_body) = $var(new_body) + "  </dialog>\n</dialog-info>";

    replace_body_atonce("^.+$", $var(new_body));
}

route[CHECK_GROUP_INTERSECTION] {
# Checks if contents of $var(group_1) and $var(group_2) that are comma-separated list of groups have at least one in common
    $var(group_1_param_count) = $(var(group_1){s.count,,});

    while ($var(group_1_param_count) >= 0) {
        $var(group_1_param) = $(var(group_1){s.select,$var(group_1_param_count),,});

        if (in_list("$var(group_1_param)", "$var(group_2)", ",")) {
            return 1;
        }
        $var(group_1_param_count) = $var(group_1_param_count) - 1;
    }
    return -1;
}

Idea here is we're stripping local/remote data from NOTIFY XML that indicates a dialog. In this case we're indicating fact of the call, but not exposing any sensitive data.